There has been a lot of tension in the psychological community recently. Replications are becoming more prevalent and many of them are finding much smaller effects or none at all. This then raises a lot of uncomfortable questions: is the studied effect real? How was it achieved in the first place? Were less than honest methods used (p-hacking etc.)? The original researchers can sometimes feel that these questions go beyond valid criticisms to full-blown attacks on their integrity and/or their abilities as a scientist. This has led to heated exchanges and some choice pejoratives being thrown about by both “sides”1.
This blog post isn’t here to pass judgement on those who are defending the original studies or the replications (and all the associated behaviour and comments). This article is here to celebrate the behaviour of a researcher whose example I think many of us should follow.
Dana Carney was one of the original researchers who investigated a phenomenon called “power posing” (Carney, Cuddy, Yapp; 2010). They supposedly found that “high-power nonverbal displays” affected your hormone levels and feelings of confidence. But a large-scale failed replication and a re-analysis later, it appears there is no effect.
So, as one of the main researchers for this effect, what should you do when faced with this evidence? All the incentive structures currently in place2 would encourage you to hand-wave away these issues: the replication wasn’t conducted properly, there are hidden moderators that were not present in the replication, the replicators were looking to find no effect, etc. But Carney has written an article stating that she does not “believe that “power pose” effects are real.” She goes into further detail as to the problems with the original study (admitting to using “researcher degrees of freedom” to fish for a significant result and to analysing “subjects in chunks” and stopping when a significant result was found).
I find this honesty commendable and wish all researcher’s whose work is shown to be false would be able to admit past mistakes and wrong-doings. Psychology cannot improve as a science unless we update our beliefs in the face of new evidence. As someone who is quite early in their science career, I’ve never had the experience of someone failing to replicate a finding of mine but I imagine it is quite hard to take (for more detail I recommend this post by Daniel Lakens). Admitting that something you have discovered isn’t real, whilst difficult, helps us have a clearer picture of reality. Hopefully this acknowledgement will encourage others to be more honest with their work.
But there’s a reason why few have taken this step. The potential negative consequences can be quite daunting: loss of credibility due to admissions of p-hacking, undermining of key publications (which may have an impact on job and tenure applications), to name a few. I understand and am (slightly) sympathetic as to why it is so rare. This is why I like Tal Yarkoni’s suggestion of an “amnesty paper” where authors could freely admit they have lost confidence in a finding of theirs and why. They could do so without any fear of repercussions and because many others are doing it, it would be less daunting. Until journals are willing to publish these kinds of articles, I would suggest there be a website/repository created which is dedicated to such articles. This will mean there is a publicly available record of this paper of doubt about a researcher’s finding. I also think celebrating those who do make the decision to publicly denounce one of their findings is important as it should encourage scientists to see this admission as a sign of strength, not weakness. This will help change the culture of how we interpret failed replications and past findings. This will hopefully then encourage scientists to write these articles expressing doubts about their past work and journals to publish them. I believe psychology will only improve if this behaviour becomes the norm.
Notes: I contacted Dana Carney prior to publication and she had no corrections to make.
Carney, D.R.; Cuddy, A.J.C.; & Yap, A.J. (2010). Power Posing: Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance. Psychological Science, 21 (10) 1363–1368.
Lakens, D. (2016). Why scientific criticism sometimes needs to hurt [online] Available at: http://daniellakens.blogspot.co.uk/2016/09/why-scientific-criticism-sometimes.html
Ranehill, E.; Dreber, A.; Johannesson, M.; Leiberg, S.; Sul, S.; & Weber, R.A. (2015). Psychological Science, 1–4.
Simmons, D. & Simonsohn, U. (2015).  Power Posing: Reassessing The Evidence Behind The Most Popular TED Talk [online] Available at: http://datacolada.org/37
- I’m using the largely unhelpful (unhelpful because it creates an “us vs them” mentality and because they are very loose definitions) divide between those who are more fervently pushing for replications, post-publication peer-review, preregistration, and newer forms of discourse (e.g. blogs, social media) etc., and those who are seen as more keen to maintain the status quo (via traditional peer-review etc.). Cards on the table: I am very firmly in the former category.
- Carney states in the article she hasn’t discussed the effect in the media so she has less to lose from her admittance of it’s nonexistence than her co-authors who have, though the original article has been cited almost 500 times.